Massachusetts Lemon Law (90: 7N ½)
For purposes of this section the following terms shall have the following meanings:
“Business day”, any day during which the service departments of authorized dealers of the manufacturer of the motor vehicle are normally open for business.
“Consumer”, a buyer or lessee, other than for purposes of resale, of a motor vehicle, any person to whom such motor vehicle is transferred during the duration of any express or implied warranty applicable to such motor vehicle, and any other person entitled by the terms of such warranty to enforce its obligations.
“Dealer”, any class one seller of motor vehicles as defined in section fifty-eight of chapter one hundred and forty.
“Lessee”, any person who acquires the right to possession of and use of a motor vehicle under a lease agreement for a term of not less than one year.
“Manufacturer”, any person who is engaged in the business of manufacturing motor vehicles, or, in the case of motor vehicles not manufactured in the United States, any person who is engaged in the business of importing motor vehicles.
“Motor vehicle” or “vehicle”, any motor vehicle as defined in section one sold, leased or replaced by a dealer or manufacturer after the effective date of this section, except that it shall not include auto homes, vehicles built primarily for off-road use or any vehicle used primarily for business purposes.
“Nonconformity”, any specific or generic defect or malfunction, or any concurrent combination of such defects or malfunctions that substantially impairs the use, market value or safety of a motor vehicle.
“Term of protection”, one year or fifteen thousand miles of use from the date of original delivery of a new motor vehicle, whichever comes first; or, in the case of a replacement vehicle provided by a manufacturer to a consumer under this section, one year or fifteen thousand miles from the date of delivery to the consumer of said replacement vehicle, whichever comes first.
If a motor vehicle does not conform to any applicable express or implied warranty, and the consumer reports the nonconformity to the manufacturer of the vehicle, its agent or its authorized dealer during the term of protection, the manufacturer, its agent or its authorized dealer shall effect such repairs as are necessary to conform the vehicle to such warranty.
If the manufacturer, its agent or authorized dealer does not conform the motor vehicle to any such applicable express or implied warranty by curing any nonconformity after a reasonable number of attempts, the manufacturer shall accept return of the vehicle from the consumer. In instances in which a vehicle is sold and subsequently returned, the manufacturer shall refund the full contract price of the vehicle including all credits and allowances for any trade-in vehicle, less any cash award that was made by the manufacturer in an attempt to resolve the dispute and was accepted by the consumer, and a reasonable allowance for use, or shall offer to replace the vehicle. In instances in which a vehicle is leased and subsequently returned, the manufacturer shall refund all payments made by the consumer to the manufacturer under the terms of the lease agreement less any cash award that was made by the manufacturer in an attempt to resolve the dispute and was accepted by the consumer, and a reasonable allowance for use, or shall offer to replace the vehicle. The consumer shall have an unqualified right to reject a manufacturer’s offer of replacement and demand a refund. In instances in which a vehicle is replaced by a manufacturer under the provisions of this section, said manufacturer shall reimburse the consumer for any fees for the transfer of registration or any sales tax incurred by the consumer as a result of such replacement. In instances in which a leased vehicle is replaced by a manufacturer under the terms of this section, an identical model vehicle shall be provided to the consumer for the remaining term of the original lease agreement. In instances in which a vehicle which was financed by the manufacturer or its subsidiary or agent is replaced under the provisions of this section, said manufacturer, subsidiary or agent shall not require the consumer to enter into any refinancing agreement which would create any financial obligations upon such consumer beyond those implied by the original financing agreement. In instances in which a vehicle which was leased from a dealer or manufacturer is replaced under the provisions of this section, said dealer or manufacturer shall not require the consumer to enter into any lease agreement which would create any financial obligations upon such consumer beyond those implied by the original lease agreement. In instances in which a refund is tendered under the provisions of this section, the manufacturer shall also reimburse the consumer for incidental costs including sales tax, registration fee, finance charges and any cost of options added by an authorized dealer. Whenever a vehicle is replaced a refund is given under the provisions of this section, in instances in which towing services and rental vehicles were not made available at no cost to the consumer, the manufacturer shall also reimburse the consumer for towing and reasonable rental costs that were a direct result of vehicle nonconformity. Refunds shall be made to the consumer and lienholder, if any, as their interests may appear. A reasonable allowance for use for all motor vehicles other than motorcycles shall be obtained by multiplying the total contract price of the vehicle, or in the case of a leased vehicle the total amount of payments made by the consumer to the manufacturer under the terms of the lease agreement, by a fraction having as its denominator one hundred thousand and having as its numerator the number of miles that vehicle traveled prior to the manufacturer’s acceptance of its return. A reasonable allowance for use for motorcycles shall be obtained by multiplying the total contract price of the motorcycle by a fraction having as its denominator twenty-five thousand and having as its numerator the number of miles that the vehicle traveled prior to the manufacturer’s acceptance of its return. It shall be an affirmative defense to any claim under this section: (i) that an alleged nonconformity does not substantially impair the use, market value or safety of the vehicle; (ii) that a nonconformity is the result of owner negligence, damage caused by accident, vandalism, or attempt to repair the vehicle by a person other than the manufacturer, its agent or authorized dealer; or (iii) that a nonconformity is the result of any attempt substantially to modify the vehicle which was not authorized by the manufacturer. A consumer shall have the option of retaining the use of any vehicle returned under the provisions of this section until such time as said consumer has been tendered a full refund or a replacement that is acceptable to the consumer. The use of any vehicle retained by a consumer after its return to a manufacturer under the provisions of this section, shall, in instances in which a refund is tendered, be reflected in the above mentioned reasonable allowance for use.
A reasonable number of attempts shall be deemed to have been undertaken to conform a motor vehicle to any applicable express or implied warranties if (a) the same nonconformity has been subject to repair three or more times by the manufacturer or its agents or authorized dealers within the term of protection, but such nonconformity continues to exist or such nonconformity has recurred within the term of protection, or (b) the vehicle is out of service by reason of repair of any nonconformity for a cumulative total of fifteen or more business days during the term of protection; provided, however, that the manufacturer shall be afforded one additional opportunity, not to exceed seven business days, to cure any nonconformity arising during the term of protection, notwithstanding the fact that such additional opportunity to cure commences after the term of protection. Such additional opportunity to cure shall commence on the day the manufacturer first knows or should have known that the limits specified in clause (a) or (b) have been met or exceeded. The term of protection, said fifteen business day period and said additional opportunity to cure shall be extended by any period of time during which repair services are not available to the consumer as a direct result of a war, invasion, fire, flood or other natural disaster. The term of protection, said fifteen business day period and said additional opportunity to cure shall also be extended by that period of time during which repair services are not available as a direct result of a strike; provided, however, that the manufacturer, its agent, or authorized dealer provides or makes provision for the free use of a vehicle to any consumer whose vehicle is out of service by reason of repair during a strike. The burden shall be on the manufacturer to show that any event claimed as a reason for an extension under the provisions of this paragraph was the direct cause for the failure of the manufacturer, its agent or authorized dealer to cure any nonconformity during the time of said event. Extensions for concurrent events shall not be cumulative. Nothing in this section shall be construed as imposing any liability on an authorized dealer or creating any cause of action by a consumer against a dealer under the provisions of this section. Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the rights or remedies which are otherwise available to a consumer or manufacturer under any other applicable provision of law. Nothing in this section shall be construed as imposing any liability on a dealer or creating a cause of action by a manufacturer against its authorized dealer under this section except with respect to (i) failure by an authorized dealer to properly effect preparation, installation of options or repairs when such preparation, installation of options or repairs would have prevented the occurrence of or cured a nonconformity; (ii) express warranties offered by an authorized dealer which exceed the provisions of the manufacturer’s express warranties; and (iii) that portion of the cost of reimbursing a consumer for dealer-added options which represents the dealer profit from the addition of such options. The manufacturer shall reimburse its authorized dealer for all incidental and consequential damages, including attorney’s fees, incurred by such dealer as a direct result of any legal action brought by a consumer under this section. No consumer shall be required by any manufacturer, its agent or its authorized dealer to give notice directly to a manufacturer of the existence of any nonconformity before resorting to state-certified, new car arbitration. No motor vehicle that is returned to the manufacturer under the provisions of this section shall be resold in the commonwealth without clear and conspicuous written disclosure of the fact that it was so returned prior to resale of the vehicle. The attorney general shall prescribe the exact form and content of any such disclosure statement.
All manufacturers shall submit to state-certified, new car arbitration, if such arbitration is requested by the consumer within eighteen months from the date of original delivery to such consumer of a new motor vehicle. State-certified, new car arbitration shall be performed by a professional arbitrator or arbitration firm appointed by the director of consumer affairs and business regulation and operating in accordance with the regulations promulgated pursuant to this section, and shall result in a written finding of whether the motor vehicle in dispute meets the standards set forth by this section for vehicles that are required to be replaced or refunded. Said finding shall be issued within forty-five days of receipt by said director of a request by a consumer for state-certified arbitration under this section. Said director shall promulgate rules and regulations governing the proceedings of state-certified, new car arbitration which shall promote their fairness and efficiency. Such rules and regulations shall include, but not be limited to, a requirement of the personal objectivity of each arbitrator in the results of the dispute he will hear, and the protection of the right of each party to present its case and to be in attendance during any presentation made by the other party. All findings of fact issuing from a state-certified, new car arbitration shall be taken as prima facie evidence of whether the standards set forth in this section for vehicles required to be refunded or replaced have been met in any subsequent action brought by either party ensuing from the matter considered in said arbitration. If a motor vehicle is found by state-certified, new car arbitration to have met the standards set forth by this section for vehicles required to be replaced or refunded, and if the manufacturer of said motor vehicle is found to have failed to provide said refund or replacement as required, such manufacturer shall, within twenty-one days from the issuance of such finding, deliver such refund or replacement, including the incidental and other costs set forth in subsection (3), or appeal the finding in superior court. No appeal by a manufacturer shall be heard unless the petition for such appeal is filed with the clerk of the superior court within twenty-one days of issuance of the finding of the state-certified arbitration and is accompanied by a bond in a principal sum equal to the money award made by the state-certified arbitrator plus two thousand five hundred dollars for anticipated attorneys’ fees, secured by cash or its equivalent, payable to the consumer. The liability of the surety of any bond filed pursuant to this section shall be limited to the indemnification of the consumer in the action. Such bond shall not limit or impair any right of recovery otherwise available pursuant to law, nor shall the amount of the bond be relevant in determining the amount of recovery to which the consumer shall be entitled. In the event that any state-certified arbitration, resulting in an award of a refund or replacement, is upheld by the court, recovery by the consumer shall include continuing damages in the amount of twenty-five dollars per day for each day, subsequent to the day the motor vehicle was returned to the manufacturer pursuant to subsection three, that said vehicle was out of use as a direct result of any nonconformity not issuing from owner negligence, accident, vandalism, or any attempt to repair or substantially modify the vehicle by a person other than the manufacturer, its agent or authorized dealer; provided, however, that the manufacturer did not make a comparable vehicle available to the consumer free of charge. In addition to any other recovery, any prevailing consumer shall be awarded reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs. If the court finds that the manufacturer did not have any reasonable basis for its appeal or that the appeal was frivolous, the court shall double the amount of the total award made to the consumer. Any consumer dissatisfied with any finding of state-certified, new car arbitration shall have the right to file a claim pursuant to chapter ninety-three A. A clear and conspicuous listing of the rights of the consumer under this section shall be affixed by a sticker to a window of each new motor vehicle offered for sale or lease in the commonwealth. An enumeration of these rights shall also be provided along with ownership manual materials. The form and manner of these notices shall be prescribed by the director of consumer affairs and business regulations.
Failure to comply with any of the provisions of this section shall constitute an unfair or deceptive act under the provisions of chapter ninety-three A. The failure of a manufacturer either to abide by the decision of a state-certified arbitration or to file a timely appeal shall entitle any prevailing consumer to an award of no less than two times the actual damages, unless said manufacturer can prove that such failure was beyond his control. For the purposes of said chapter ninety-three A, the timely delivery by a manufacturer of a refund or acceptable replacement, pursuant to a finding by state-certified arbitration, shall constitute the granting of relief upon demand. The director of consumer affairs and business regulation shall inform the office of the attorney general of any method, act or practice of which she is aware that is deemed by her to be a violation of any provision of this section.
Whoever, within twenty-one days of any finding in favor of the consumer of the state-certified, new car arbitration, fails to appeal such finding and does not deliver a refund or replacement vehicle or notify the consumer of the estimated delivery date of the replacement vehicle, shall be punished by a fine of five thousand dollars per day until the delivery of such refund or replacement. The estimated delivery date shall not exceed sixty days from the date the manufacturer notifies the consumer that a delivery will be made. Said fine shall not exceed fifty thousand dollars for each such violation. The amount of said fine shall begin to accumulate on the twenty-second day following the arbitration decision. If eighty-one days has elapsed from the issuance of a finding in favor of the consumer of the state-certified, new car arbitration and no appeal has been taken and no award delivered and no fine paid, the attorney general shall initiate proceedings against said manufacturer for failure to pay said fine. The proceedings initiated pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be commenced in superior court department of the trial court.In addition to the remedies hereinbefore provided, the attorney general may bring an action on behalf of the commonwealth to restrain further violation of this section, to enforce any provision, and for such other relief as may be appropriate.
- Daniel N. Ruggiero, Attorney at Law Massachusetts Bar No. 4420
- co-counsel, Thompson Consumer Law Group PLLC (Managing Attorney Russell S. Thompson IV, Arizona Bar No: 029098)
- Carmenelisa Perez-Kudzma, Attorney at Law Massachusetts Bar No. 633520
- co-counsel, Weisberg Consumer Law Group PA (Managing Attorney Alex Weisberg, Florida Bar No: 0566551)
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